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local portray(++TermClass, ++TransPred, ++Options)

export portray(++TermClass, ++TransPred, ++Options)

Defines a portray transformation for the functor or type specified by TermClass.
Term in the form Atom, Atom/Integer or type(Type).
Term in the form Atom/Integer.
Possibly empty list of option flags.


This declaration is used to define a portray transformation on a class of terms. Portray transformations are performed when a term is written by one of the predicates write/1,2, writeln/1,2, print/1,2, display/1,2, printf/2,3 without the 'T' output option, or write_term/2,3 unless the transform(false) option is used. Alternatively, portray transformations can be invoked explicitly via portray_term/3.

The TermClass specifies to which terms the transformation will be applied:

transform all terms with the specified functor
transform all terms of the specified type, where Type is one of compound, string, integer, rational, float, breal, goal, atom, meta.
The +TransPred argument specifies the predicate that will perform the transformation. TransPred must be of arity 2 or 3 and be in the form:
	trans_function(OldTerm, NewTerm [, Module]) :- ... .
At transformation time, the system will call TransPred in the module where local portray/3 was invoked. The term to transform is passed as the first argument, the second is a free variable which the transformation should bind to the transformed term, and the optional third argument is the module where the term is going to be printed.

Options is a list which may be empty or contain one of the following type specification atoms:

term (default)
Transform all terms (this is the default)
Transform only if the term is printed as a program clause, i.e. by printf/2,3 with the 'C' output option, or write_term/2,3 with the as(clause) option.
Transform only if the term is printed as a goal, i.e. by printf/2,3 with the 'G' output option, or write_term/2,3 with the as(goal) option.
and possibly the following option:
protect_arg (optional)
Disable transformation of subterms. If this option is used, the transformation predicate itself should take care of transforming those subterms that should be transformed (portray_term/3). This option is only useful for term-transformation because only those perform automatic subterm transformation.
The visibility of portray declarations is controlled by the module system. Transformations only take place when the portray declarations is visible in the module where the term is being printed. The visibility is local or exported, depending on the declaration.

Portray declarations are being treated as 'write'-macros in current_macro/4 and erase_macro/2.

Term-transformations (but not clause/goal transformation) automatically transform all subterms of a term in a top-down fashion. This means that the transformation predicate will see a term with untransformed subterms.

Modes and Determinism


(4) instantiation fault
One or more arguments not instantiated.
(5) type error
TermClass not of form Atom, Atom/Integer or type(Type).
(5) type error
TransPred not of form Atom/Integer.
(5) type error
Options not a list or contains invalid flags.
(6) out of range
Arity of TransPred is not 2 or 3.
(6) out of range
Illegal flag in Options.
(161) macro transformation already defined in this module
Transformation already defined in the current module for TermClass


% Example showing use of write macros

    [eclipse 1]: [user].

     :- local portray(s/1, tr_s/2, []).
     tr_s(0, 0).
     tr_s(s(S), N) :- tr_s(S, N1), N is N1+1.

    [eclipse 2]: write(s(s(s(0)))).

   local portray(X, trx/2, []).              (Error 4).
   local portray(a/1, tra/2, [c]).           (Error 6).

See Also

portray_term / 3, macro / 3, printf / 2, printf / 3, current_macro / 4, erase_macro / 2